Governing Policies:

Section 4.7, Faculty Handbook – Faculty Appointment Process

The following policy defines the process through which faculty must be employed by the School of
Mines. If a formal search process is required, this process is conducted as defined in Section 4.2 of this
Procedures Manual.

Tenure, Tenure Track Faculty: All Tenure and Tenure-Track Faculty positions must be filled
through a formal search process.

Teaching Faculty: All Teaching Faculty positions must be filled through a formal search process.

Chaired Visiting Professorships: All chaired visiting professorships must be filled through a
formal search process.

Professor of Practice: All Professors of Practice positions must be filled through a formal search

Exempt Positions: All exempt positions expected to last for more than one year must be filled
through a formal search process, except in those cases where the position holder brings the full
funding. In these cases there can be no commitment, expressed or implied, from the institution.

Adjunct Positions: Adjuncts can only be hired on a part-time basis (Note: definition of “part-
time” is available through the Office of Human Resources) and a formal search is not required,
although it may be conducted at the discretion of the Department Head.

Research Faculty, Postdoctoral Appointments and Non-Chaired Visiting Faculty: Formal
searches for research faculty positions and non-chaired visiting positions, whether for teaching or
research, are required whenever the appointment is expected to last for more than one year. As
initial postdoctoral appointments are normally made for one year, a formal search process for
filling a postdoctoral appointment is not required. In cases where the timing of a contract
requires expeditious appointment and when an individual has been identified, appointment can be
made with an abbreviated search that includes formal consideration by the supervisor, the
Department Head, the Dean, and at least two members of the department. Formal review at the
end of one year is required for reappointment.

Renewal of all research, non-chaired visiting faculty, and postdoctoral appointments after the first
period is subject to satisfactory performance as determined by the department head/division

Department Heads, Division Directors, and Deans: The decision on whether or not to conduct
external searches for Department Heads, Division Directors, Deans and other administrative
positions, when filling from within the department, will be made by the Provost on a case-by-case


Last Revision:

June 16, 2016


Governing Policies:

Section 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5, Faculty Handbook – Minimum Qualifications


Search Request:
To seek and receive approval for a new hire, faculty or otherwise, the following procedure should be
adhered to:

a. As part of the annual budget process, during the Spring semester, the Provost shall consult with the
Deans to construct a hiring budget request for the upcoming year. The Provost and Deans, based on
input received from academic and administrative Department Heads, and Program Directors, will
develop this plan. For new hire requests Department Heads should provide, as requested by their
Deans: 1) an overall rationale/need for the position, 2) fit of the request into the academic/strategic
plan for the unit, 3) fit of the request into the strategic plan for the institution, 4) estimated starting
salary, 5) estimated startup needs, and 6) estimates space requirements.
b. In late spring and summer, at the conclusion of the budget process, the Provost will work with the
Deans to augment or amend the hiring plan as required by approved budget or recently developing
staffing needs.
c. The Deans will inform their academic Department Heads and Program Directors with an approved
hiring list for the academic year by August. At this point, the Department or Program may formally
start the search process.
d. To start the search process, the Department Head or Program Director should,

Following consultation with departmental or program faculty, the Department Head or
Program Director shall appoint and charge a search committee and chairperson. The
committee composition should reflect institutional values of diversity and inclusion. The
search committee shall not include the Department Head or Program Director. The search
committee shall be comprised of at least five faculty members, more than half of who are
from the hiring department. In the case of interdisciplinary hires, the search committee
must have an academic faculty member from each home department participating in the
program and may not include Department Heads from any of these departments.
For hires of library faculty, following consultation with appropriate constituency groups,
the Library Director shall appoint a faculty search committee, including a committee
chairperson. The search committee shall be comprised of not less than five faculty
members, more than half of who are library faculty. At least one committee member must
be from outside of the library.
In consultation with departmental or program faculty, and the Department Head or
Program Director, the search committee shall prepare the advertisement and search
selection criteria. Prior to placing any job announcements, the advertisement and
selection criteria must be reviewed by Human Resources for EEO and Affirmative Action
compliance. The vacancy shall then be advertised in appropriate publications or venues.
Complete the Faculty Recruitment Authorization Form (RAF). The “Search Budget”
listed on the RAF should be set to the index number of the appropriate Dean's search
The search package (i.e., RAF, position advertisement, and selection criteria) is
forwarded to the Dean for review and approval. The Dean will approve and forward the

package either to HR for search initiative, or in some cases to the Provost for additional
review and approval.

Search Process:
Once final approval has been received, the search may proceed as follows:

a. As soon as possible after HR approval of the advertisement and selection criteria, HR will place the
advertisement in the venues recommended by the Committee and approved by the Department Head
and Dean.
b. After the Office of Human Resources approves the selection criteria and places the advertisement, the
Committee must be formally charged. The Office of Human Resources will inform the Committee of
upcoming opportunities for meeting the formal charge requirement.
c. The Committee is encouraged to proactively reach out to appropriate colleagues at other institutions
to expand the pool of candidates who apply for the position. Special attention should be paid to
producing as much ethnic and gender diversity as possible in the search pool.
d. The following process shall govern the selection of finalists. The faculty search committee shall
perform the applicant screening process and identify qualified candidates. The search committee will
work with the Department Head/Program Director to develop a recommendation as to which
candidates, if any, shall be invited to campus for interviews as finalists. Normally, the search
committee will identify a minimum of three finalists. If fewer than three finalists are identified, the
faculty of the hiring department(s) should be consulted as to whether the search should proceed.
e. Once the committee has narrowed the search to a selection of finalists, the committee must formalize
its recommendation in memo format to the Department Head (if the committee reports directly to a
Dean, the memo should go to the Dean). One aspect of this memo is a summary of the scores, based
on the selection criteria, to justify the choices of most promising candidates. The Department Head (if
appropriate) and Dean must formally concur with the recommendation, doing so memo format to the
Search Committee Chair.

f. The Search Committee Chair completes the Recommendation for Interview Form, with the appropriate
signatures and submits this form to HR with a copy to Academic Affairs.

Interview Guidelines:
Faculty candidate, both TTT and Teaching, interviews should conform to the following guidelines:

a. The finalist(s) shall be interviewed by the search committee and members of the
department/program and the administration. Following interview(s), the search committee and
Department Head/Program Director shall work with the department(s) to develop the hiring
recommendation as defined below. Minimum guidelines for administrative interviews are listed

b. During the interview process, the Search Committee Chair must ask the candidate: “who may we
not contact regarding your candidacy for a position here at the Colorado School of Mines.” This
allows a candidate to set boundaries on reference checks regarding their professional track record.

c. During the interview process, the Dean and/or Department Head must ask the candidate what
their salary expectations are and also ascertain some level of startup expectations from the


Type of Candidate
All Ranks
Tenure-track &
Teaching Faculty
30 minutes

60 minutes
60 minutes
30 minutes
30 minutes

and a meal
Associate Provost or
Dean of Grad
30 minutes
30 minutes

Studies* (DGS)
VP for Research &
Tech Transfer
30 minutes
30 minutes
30 minutes
30 minutes

College Dean

60 minutes
60 minutes
30 minutes
30 minutes

*The above listed members of the senior administration may choose to have additional meeting(s)
with the candidate. Typically, a candidate will only interview with the VPRTT if he or she is
available. Deans may choose to interview the candidate for a longer time period or to be present
in multiple interview venues. At his/her election, the Provost may delegate the interview to
another individual.

Decision and Hiring Processes:
a. The faculty of the Department(s) shall develop the hiring recommendations of the department(s).
In developing their recommendations, the Search Committee and Department Head must seek
faculty input and are encouraged to use the Faculty Candidate Assessment Process (FCAP) that
may include solicitation of information concerning how actively each faculty member
participated in the interview process. All tenure-line and teaching faculty in the
department/program, including the Department Head/Program Director, faculty on sabbatical, and
those faculty members serving on the faculty search committee, are eligible to provide input.
Regardless of specific approach, faculty outside of the search committee and the Department
Head/Program Director will be canvassed concerning the hiring recommendation. Best practice
for obtaining faculty input is for the process to be anonymous. In the case of interdepartmental
hires, the faculty of each department should develop hiring recommendation(s) in this manner.
b. After sharing recommendations from the Search Committee, the results of the faculty input, and
his or her recommendations with the entire faculty, the Department Head/Program Director, or
Department Heads in the case of joint appointments, shall fully and accurately convey the hiring
recommendation of the faculty, the recommendation of the search committee, and the Department
Head’s views to the Dean or Provost, as applicable. The Department Head shall also submit all
required materials and forms. If an offer of tenure is being considered for a new faculty member,
the departmental promotion and tenure committee, or committees in the case of joint
appointments, shall be involved in the decision as set forth in section 8.1.7 B of the Faculty
c. The Dean or Provost, as applicable, shall make the final hiring decision after consultation with
the Office of Human Resources to assure that the search has met EEO and Affirmative Action
requirements. If this decision differs from that of the hiring department(s), the Dean or Provost
shall discuss this matter with the faculty of the hiring department(s) before extending a formal

d. If the search is for an opportunity hire, the process above may be modified by the Dean or
Provost, as applicable, in consultation with the hiring department, or departments in the case of
joint appointments, except that no modification to the process may be made with respect to the
EEO and Affirmative Action reviews conducted by Human Resources. However, the hiring
department, or departments in case of joint appointments, shall develop the recommendation of
the faculty of the department(s) using the FCAP described above.
e. The Dean (or his or her delegate) must provide approval on the hiring action before any offer,
verbal or written, is made. As a part of the approval, the Dean will provide, in writing, an
approval for salary. At the discretion of the Dean, the Dean or Department Head will contact the
candidate and start the hiring conversation that will proceed by setting an acceptable academic
salary and then determining the startup needs for the candidate. Academic Affairs will provide a
worksheet to help determine startup packages for the candidates to be used by the negotiator to
help determine the startup needs for the candidate. The Dean and Department Head will work
together to set an appropriate startup package for the candidate. Once the hiring package is set,
the negotiator will convey this to the candidate.
f. Moving expenses – AA typically provides $5k for new faculty hires. Expenses allowable are
covered by the “Moving Policy.” Exceptions and supplements to this by departments are
considered by require Dean approval.
g. Once a verbal agreement is made, the Department Head or Dean should request from Academic
Affairs, an offer letter and contract, which will include offers for salary, startup funding, and
moving costs. In the case of candidates that need to be immediately considered for tenure, this
offer letter should request what materials, if any beyond the application package, are required for
consideration of the tenure decision. Formal letters of offer should include all commitments
made to the candidate (e.g., those from AA, the Department, VPRTT, etc.). In order to move
forward with an offer that is tied to tenure, the candidate must sign a contractual agreement that
accepts our offer if we do in fact award tenure. The Department Head or Dean may elect to
include an additional letter to be sent with the formal offer letter from Academic Affairs that
provides information about departmental resources applied to the startup needs for the individual
such as, office space, teaching relief, etc. Any space allocation commitments must be formally
made by the appropriate Dean.
h. If the candidate accepts the offer, he/she will sign the contract. Copies will be provided to the
Department and the Office of Human Resources.
i. Once an offer has been accepted, the Department should complete an HRS form for Human
Resources and instruct the new faculty member to contact Human Resources to sign up for New
Employee Registration.

Last Revision:

June 16, 2016



Acquisition of United States entry and initial employment visas for new tenured, tenure-track, and other
teaching and research faculty members hired from foreign countries will be facilitated through the Offices
of Legal Services and Academic Affairs. The Colorado School of Mines will file the appropriate
supporting documents with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), and the
CSM hiring department will pay the required USCIS filing fees for the initial visas and renewal of visas
for these faculty members. The visa application process will commence upon issuance of a formal
request from the Department Head and/or Dean to Legal Services, and the application for the initial
employment-based visa will normally be done in conjunction with the acceptance of an employment offer
to the faculty member. CSM will work with local immigration counsel to obtain both the initial
employment-based visa and subsequent visa extensions for these hires. Typically, the hiring department,
with the assistance of Academic Affairs, will be expected to fund the expenses and fees incurred by CSM
for these legal services. Any expenses and fees associated with the faculty member’s dependents’ visas
must be funded by the faculty member personally, utilizing personal resources.

Most of our foreign faculty hires will utilize one of two visa categories: the H-1B visa for “Specialty
Occupations” or the O-1 visa for foreign nationals of extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, etc. In the
case of the H-1B, legal counsel will need detailed information from the applicant and the hiring
department regarding the applicant’s anticipated position at Mines and the applicant’s visa/immigration
history. Department Heads, Division Directors or Deans will be asked to assist in acquiring the necessary
information from the applicant. Applications for O-1 visas will be done on a case-by-case basis. The
information needed is comparable to that of the H-1B, except for the additional requirement of peer
reviews and evidence of unusual distinction.

Initial employment visas will typically expire after a period of three years. CSM will expect immigrant
tenured, tenure-track and other approved faculty who are on such visas to take personal responsibility for
initiating the process for visa renewal or application for permanent residency, and to do so within a
timeframe that is consonant with visa expiration dates and the expected petition review and approval
periods required by the USCIS. CSM will assist with visa extensions or renewals, but will not provide
legal representation or fund USCIS filing fees for immigrant faculty who are seeking permanent residency
status (also known as the “Green Card”), except to the extent federal law or regulations require the
School, as an employer, to subsidize or assist the employee with legal representation or USCIS fees for
any aspect of the permanent residency application process. CSM will also assist with labor certifications
(as needed for visa renewal or permanent residency applications) by confirming the employment status of
immigrant faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and providing required supporting documentation.

On a case-by-case basis, CSM may assist with H-1B applications for foreign research professors or post-
doctoral fellows who intend to reside in the United States and expect to have long-term appointments at
the Colorado School of Mines. Requests for such assistance should be channeled through the Office of
Academic Affairs, where they will be reviewed in the context of the expected long-term value that the
School will acquire through the professional services of the individual. The application materials will
normally be forwarded to immigration counsel for all legal services leading up to issuance of the visa.
Filing and legal services costs will be borne by the hiring department utilizing project accounts or
departmental discretionary funds, as appropriate and pursuant to the School’s fiscal policies and

In cases where temporary foreign faculty hires (visiting professors for terms less than three years) are best
suited to the J visa, the application will be processed through the International Student Office. This Office
has appropriate authority and expertise in processing J visas, and will be asked to provide assistance on an
as-needed basis for temporary foreign faculty positions. It is illegal for the Colorado School of Mines to

employ any foreign employee who does not have a valid employment visa or permanent residency, or
lacks appropriate documentation evidencing his or her eligibility for employment in the United States. If a
faculty member is unable to procure the required work authorization or visa status to ensure such
authorization, or the visa status ensuring such authorization expires, federal law may require the School to
take immediate steps to terminate the faculty member’s employment.

Last Revision:

September 12, 2016


Upon hiring, the following documentation should be submitted to Academic Affairs for all new faculty,
including academic, adjunct, research, no remuneration, etc.:

1) CV or resume
2) Original, official transcript for the highest degree (required only for faculty with teaching

These documents are required by CSM’s accreditation agencies.

Last Revision:

February 11, 2008



Governing Policies:

Section 4.3, Faculty Handbook – Minimum Qualifications for Non-Tenure Track Instructional Faculty
Section 4.4, Faculty Handbook – Minimum Qualifications for Research Faculty Titles
Section 5.3.1, Faculty Handbook – Degree Candidates

On occasion, there are good reasons to want to employ well-qualified graduate students in faculty
appointments (Research Associate, or Teaching Faculty), or conversely allow existing faculty to pursue
additional degrees. Appointees, who are graduate students currently enrolled in good academic standing,
must go through the full appointment process and meet all requirements specified in the Faculty
Handbook. In the case of appointing graduate students to a faculty position, however, the requirement for
advertising the position can be waived by the Provost.
Section 5.3.1 of the Faculty Handbook prohibits persons from holding any faculty appointment in the
same department in which they are pursuing their degree. It allows, however, the Dean of Graduate
Studies to waive this requirement in special cases. Following are the minimum guidelines that must be
fulfilled in order for such a waiver to be considered:

a. The graduate student must have completed the basic course work and minimum number of credit
hours required for the degree and have an approved Admission to Candidacy form on file in the
Graduate Office.
b. The department head or division director must certify that the graduate student has the
appropriate knowledge and/or experience that make her or him well suited to the position.
c. The graduate student’s faculty responsibilities must be limited to the specific purpose of the
assignment (e.g. work on a research project, teaching a course, etc.). The graduate student may
not vote on matters of departmental policies and operations or otherwise participate in decisions
that normally are the purview of the full-time, permanent faculty.
d. The full-time, permanent faculty in the department must support the appointment and certify that
it will not cause a conflict of interest when they give the graduate student grades in their own
courses or vote on the student’s performance on the comprehensive exam or thesis defense.
e. The rate of compensation must be at least what the student would have received as a Graduate
Research Assistant or Graduate Teaching Assistant for substantially the same time commitment.

Graduate students who are given faculty appointments under these conditions will have dual status as
both faculty and students. Their responsibilities and privileges as faculty will be limited as indicated
above. They will continue to have the same responsibilities and privileges as other students in their
category, and their work assignment must allow them to continue to make significant progress toward
their degree.

Last Revision:

June 5, 2014



Governing Policies:

Section 4.1.2, Faculty Handbook – Non-Tenure-Track Faculty Appointments
Section 4.1.8, Faculty Handbook – Non-remuneration Appointments


Nominations for non-remunerative (i.e., volunteer) faculty appointments are made upon the
recommendation of the appropriately constituted Departmental Promotion and Tenure Committee, the
Department Head, and the College Dean. Non-remunerative appointments that do not involve faculty rank
(e.g., research assistant, research associate, etc.) do not require a recommendation from the Dean.

As per the Faculty Handbook, non-remunerative appointments are available for the following faculty
titles: Adjunct, Visiting, Visiting Scholar, Research Associate, Research Professor (at any rank), and
Affiliate Faculty. Please see section 4.1.2 of the Faculty Handbook for descriptions of the roles of each of
these faculty titles.

Recommendations along with the appropriate Human Resources action form
( should be forwarded to the Associate Provost for final approval.

When the office of the Associate Provost receives the request, it will send a letter to the faculty member
(sample letter follows). When the signed letter is received, the Associate Provost will send copies to
Human Resources and the Department/Division, as well as place the original in the faculty member’s file.

A background check is required for all no-remuneration faculty or staff that work directly with students,
(just as it is required for all paid faculty and staff).

Once a non-remuneration faculty member’s appointment ends, a separation form must be submitted to
Human Resources, as with all other faculty.

As per Section 4.1.8 of the Faculty Handbook, all non-remuneration appointments are at most, one-year
appointments. Renewal of the appointment is available, but only done upon the recommendation of the
appropriate Departmental Promotion and Tenure Committee, the Department Head, and the College

Last Revision:

June 18, 2014




Dear «Name»:

I am pleased to offer you an/extend your appointment as «Title» in the «DepartmentDivision» at the
Colorado School of Mines (“Mines”) for the period «Start_Date» through «End_Date» with no remuneration.

Although your volunteer appointment is not considered employment and does not confer the employment
rights and privileges listed in the Mines Faculty Handbook (“Handbook”), you wil be expected as a Mines appointee
to abide by the restrictions on the unauthorized use of Mines’ name contained in Section 6.2.3.B of the Handbook,
which can be found at You wil also be required to
comply with al other pertinent Mines policies and procedures, including, but not limited to, those set forth in the
Faculty Handbook, the Academic Affairs Procedures Manual and on the Institutional Policy website. Please be
advised that non-remuneration volunteers are not eligible for Mines benefits, except for liability insurance provided
through the State Office of Risk Management, which Mines is required by law to provide.

This of er is contingent upon the Mines’ receipt on the first day of your appointment period of acceptable
documents that demonstrate you are legally permit ed to work in the United States. This is mandated by federal law,
specifical y the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). A list of acceptable documents can be found at
http:/ by following the “I-9 Immigration” link. You are solely responsible for
obtaining all necessary documents prior to your first day at Mines. If you do not provide these documents by the first
date of your appointment, this offer of appointment wil be rescinded and withdrawn.

This of er is also contingent upon Mines’ verification of your credentials and other information required by
Mines policies, including the successful completion of a criminal history background check, prior to your start date.
The Background Investigation Disclosure and Authorization form and a Summary of Your Rights document that we are
required to provide you as part of our background screening process can be found at ht p:/
and is also attached to this letter for your convenience. Please submit this form to Human Resources at

Please provide Academic Affairs with an official transcript of your highest degree. We recognize that
obtaining official transcripts may take some additional time. Please assure that we receive your official transcripts by

This appointment contains the entire agreement between Mines and the Volunteer on the subject of the
volunteer’s appointment by Mines and shal supersede any and al prior written or oral agreements or representations
between the parties on this subject. Please indicate your acceptance of this appointment under the terms stated
above by signing this letter and returning it to Academic Affairs no later than «RETURN_DATE».

Thank you for your participation and contribution to the educational program of Mines. I am sure our
association wil prove to be mutually beneficial and worthwhile.


Terry Parker



Volunteer Signature


Mines Office of Human Resources





Governing Policies:

Section 4.1.2, Faculty Handbook – Non-Tenure-Track Faculty Appointments
Section 5.2, Faculty Handbook – Eligibility for Benefits
Section 6.1.2, Faculty Handbook – Teaching Assignment Guidelines


As defined in Section 4.1.2 of the Faculty Handbook, Adjunct Faculty are temporary faculty members
who are appointed on a semester-by-semester basis. Adjunct Faculty are typically hired for specific,
short-term, instructional assignments. They may, however, also be assigned supplemental administrative

As Adjunct Faculty members are usually hired to fill specific, short term needs, they have generally been
considered ineligible for benefits. As such, to remain in compliance with Patient Protection and
Affordable Care Act the following guidelines shall be used to limit Adjunct Faculty effort levels:

1. Total effort across all activities, instructional and administrative, shall be less than 75% of full-
time effort without the expressed, written approval of the College Dean and the Provost.

2. For Adjunct Faculty who have teaching-only assignments, whether in the same department or not,
effort is calculated based on the full-time load defined in Section 6.1.2 of the Faculty Handbook
of 12 credit hours per semester. As such, to be less than 75% full-time, normal adjunct
assignments must have TOTAL teaching loads of LESS THAN 9 credit hours per semester.

3. For adjunct assignments that include both teaching and administrative responsibilities, total
percent effort is calculated as the sum of 1) the percent effort directly assigned to administrative
responsibilities, and 2) 8 1/3 % effort per course credit hour taught. The sum of these two efforts
must be less than 75%.

The Provost may allow a small number of adjunct appointments to be above 75% of full-time effort in
cases where it can be documented that there is a compelling institutional need/interest in retaining an
adjunct appointment at a higher level of effort. Adjunct Faculty appointed at effort levels of 75% and
above shall be deemed eligible for benefits as defined in Section 5.2 of the Faculty Handbook.

Last Revision:

June 18, 2014


Governing Policies:

Section 9, Faculty Handbook – Termination of Employment


Termination of faculty is governed by policies defined in Section 9 of the Faculty Handbook. Within
these policies, however, when an employee leaves CSM for any reason, it is required that the
Department/Division complete a Separation Form. This form is available at

Please note that the Separation Form is required for all employees, including temporary and adjunct
faculty, whether they receive benefits or not.

The “end-date” specified on the Separation Form used for personnel payroll actions specifies the date
upon which salary payroll actions against the account number(s) are terminated for an employee. The
“end-date” does not signify termination of employment or resignation by the employee from the Colorado
School of Mines. On the contrary, for many employees, especially those working on research accounts,
departments activate a new HRS form for a period immediately beyond the previously expired “end-date”
and keep the employee in continuous employment of the School.
Any assumption that the Separation Form “end-date” automatically invokes a full employer-employee
separation is incorrect. While salary actions will cease, continuing payment of health premiums by CSM
for an eligible faculty member do not. This is advantageous for employees who serve continuously, but
whose salary payments must be renewed periodically as funding changes, and as implemented through
successive filings of HRS forms with sequential start-end periods.
However, for employees who are truly terminating employment, if we do not inform them of their rights
to continuing benefits through COBRA within 14 days of separation, the School could face significant
liabilities and penalties. There are also PERA complications: failure to get timely termination
information to PERA has an impact on service dates and final payout of any balances, which in turn can
negatively affect (for the individual) the calculation of highest average salary.
It is therefore essential, and required, that when an individual is not only ending his or her salary contract
period (per the HRS form) but is also leaving the Colorado School of Mines, that Departments and
Divisions complete the Office of Human Resources Separation Notice.
This form alerts the HR Office to the fact that we have an intentional termination of an individual, and
triggers the appropriate health, COBRA and PERA separation actions.
Last Revision:

June 3, 2014